of Washington







Biological Society of Washington










Officers and committees for 1897 v

Proceedings vii-xii

Descriptions of the Species of Cycadeoidea or Fossil Cycadean Trunks from the Iron Ore Belt, Potomac Formation, of Mary land, by Lester F. Ward 1-17

Revision of the Coyotes or Prairie Wolves, by C. Hart Merriam. 19-33 Collomia mazama, a New Plant from Crater Lake, Oregon, by

Frederick V. Coville 35-37

Delphinium viridescens and Sambucus leiosperma, Two New Plants

from the Northwest Coast, by John B. Leiberg 39-41

Descriptions of Two New Marine Opossums from Mexico, by C.

Hart Merriam 43-44

Phenacomys preblei, a New Vole from Colorado, by C. Hart Mer riam 45

Notes on the Lynxes of Eastern North America, with Descrip tions of New Forms, by Outram Bangs 47-51

Description of a New Red Fox from Nova Scotia, by Outram

Bangs 53-55

The Itinerary of John Jeffrey, an Early Botanical Explorer of

Western North America, by Frederick V. Coville 57-60

The Technical Name of the Camas Plant, by Frederick V. Coville. 61-65 Description of a New Vole from Oregon, by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr.. 67-68 A Species of Shearwater (Puffinus assimilis Gould) New to the

North American Fauna, by Jonathan Dwight, Jr 69-70

Descriptions of Two New Red-backed Mice (Evotomys) from

Oregon, by C. Hart Merriam 71-72

The Voles of the Subgenus Chilotus, with Descriptions of New

Species, by C. Hart Merriam 73-75

Synopsis of Voles of Genus Phenacomys, by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. . 77-87 Synopsis of the American Sesarmse, with Description of a New

Species, by Mary J. Rathbun 89-92

Synopsis of the American Species of Palicus Philippi, with De scriptions of Six New Species, by Mary J. Rathbun 93-99

Two New Moles from California and Oregon, by C. Hart Merriam . 101-102 Three New Jumping Mice (Zapus) from the Northwest, by C. Hart

Merriam .' 103-104

Description of a New Species ofiSphtsroma, by Harriet Richardson . 105-107 Synopsis of the American Species of Ethusa, with Description of

a New Species, by Mary J. Rathbun 109-110

Revision of the Genus Evotomys, by Vernon Bailey 113-138

Description of a New Bat from Margarita Island, Venezuela, by

Gerrit S. Miller, Jr 139

Description of a New Vole from Kashmir, by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 141

Description of a New Muskrat from the Great Dismal Swamp,

Virginia, by C. Hart Merriam 143

Descriptions of a New Eagle from Alaska and a New Squirrel

from Lower California, by C. H. Townsend 145-146

Lepus baileyi, a New Rabbit from Wyoming, by C. Hart Merriam . 147-148 The African Swimming Crabs of the Genus Callinectes, by Mary J.

Rathbun 149-151

A Revision of the Nomenclature of the Brachyura, by Mary J.

Rathbun 153-167

Two ISew Plants from Mount Mazama, Oregon, by Frederick V.

Coville and John B. Leiberg 169-171

Notes on the Nomenclature of Four Genera of Tropical American

Mammals, by T. S. Palmer 173-174

A New Fur-seal or Sea-bear (Arctocephalus townsendi) from Guada- lupe Island, off Lower California, by C. Hart Merriam 175-178,


iv Contents and Illustrations.


A New Antrozous from California, by C. Hart Merriam 179-180

Description of a New Genus and Species of Sphseromidse from

Alaskan Waters, by Harriet Richardson 181-183

Description of a New Bassariscus from Lower California, with

Remarks on 'JBassaris raptor' Baird, by C. Hart Merriam 185-187

Notes on Chipmunks from the Western United States, with De scriptions of New Forms, by C. Hart Merriam 181>-21 2

Descriptions of Eight New Pocket Gophers ( Thomomys), from Ore gon, California, and Nevada, by C. Hart Merriam 213-216

Ovis nelsoni, a New Mountain Sheep from the Desert Region of Southern California, by C. Hart Merriam 217-218

Descriptions of Two New Pumas from the Northwestern United States, by C. Hart Merriam 219-220

Descriptions of Five New Rodents from . the Coast Region of Alaska, by C. Hart Merriam 221-223

Description of a New Flying Squirrel from Ft. Klamath, Oregon, by C. Hart Merriam 225

Descriptions of Five New Shrews from Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia, by C. Hart Merriam 227-230

Diagnoses of New Fishes from Bering Sea, by Theo. Gill and

Chas. H. Townsend 231-234

Mammals from Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, by Outram Bangs 235-240

A List of the Generic and Family Names of Rodents, by T. S. Palmer ". ." 241-270

Cervus roosevelti, a New Elk from the Olympics, by C. Hart Mer riam ." 271-275

Nelsonia neotomodon, a New Genus and Species of Murine Rodent from Mexico, by C. Hart Merriam 277-279

A New Pine Squirrel from California, by Outram Bangs 281-282



•I. Collomia mazama Coville, A New Plant. II. Skulls of Lynxes.

III. Skulls of Evotomys.

IV. Color phases of Evotomys proteus Bangs.



Figure 1. Postpalatal region of Lynx 48

2. Postpalatal region of Cervaria 48

3. Dorsal view of Sphteroma destructor 105

4. Mandibular appendage of Sphseroma destructor 106

5. Legs of Sphxroma destructor 3 06

6. Teeth of Callinectes latimanus 151

7. Abdomen of Callinectes latimanus 151

8. Chela of Callinectes latimanus 151

9. Tecticeps alascensis 181

10. Antennae of Tecticeps alascensis. . . . 182

11. Mandible and appendage of Tecticeps alascensis 182

12. Legs of Tecticeps alascensis 183

13. Molars of Microtns pennsylvanicus and M. enixus 239

14. Molars of Nelsonia neotomodon and Neotoma desertorum . . . 278

15. Skull of Nelsonia neotomodon 279




For 1897



President L. 0. HOWARD

Vice- Presidents



Recording Secretary


Corresponding Secretary


Treasurer F. H. KNOWLTON









Committee on Communications

B. E. FERNOW, Chairman



Committee on Publications C. HART MERRIAM, Chairman


Delegate to the Joint Commission L. O. HOWARD

* Ex-Presidents of the Society.






The Society meets in the Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club on alternate Saturdays at 8 p. m. Brief notices of the meetings, with abstracts of the papers, are published in Science.

January 2, 1897— 269th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 45 persons present. F. A. Lucas exhibited skulls of the fur-seal showing deform ities of the jaw-bones.

The following communications were presented :

E. W. Nelson : New Birds from Mexico.*

F. A. Lucas : On the Natural Mortality among Fur-seals.

January 16, 1897— 270th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 36 persons present.

Theo. Holm exhibited a copy of Fuchs' ' Histoire des Plantes,' published in 1549 ; also the first and last volumes of the ' Flora Danica.' He then exhibited a specimen of Draba hyperborea, calling attention to its monopodial development.

W. Tv Swingle exhibited some algse from the Bay of Naples, remarkable for the size of their special cells.

V. K. Chesnut showed specimens of Oicuta vagans and Nerium oleander, discussing their poisonous properties.

The following communications were presented :

David White : Unity or Plurality of Type Specimens in Paleontology.

*The Auk, XIV, pp. 42-76, Jan., 1897.


viii The Biological Society of Washington.

David White : A New Lycopodineous Cone from the Coal Measures of Missouri.*

Edward L. Greene: The Development of the Idea of a Genus.

M. A. Carleton : The Ontogenetic Separation of Puccinia gra- minis avenas from P. graminis tritici.

January 30, 1897— 271st Meeting.

The President in the chair and 45 persons present.

The following communications were presented :

C. Hart Merriam : The Pribilof Island Hair Seal.

C. H. Townsend : The Origin of the Alaskan Live Mammoth Story.f

Frank Benton : The Giant Bee of India.

L. 0. Howard : Parasites of Shade Tree Insects in Washing ton. J

February 27, 1897— 272d Meeting.

The President in the chair and 28 persons present.

The following communications were presented :

C. H. Townsend : The Distribution and Migration of the Northern Fur-seal. §

Charles L. Pollard : What Constitutes a Type in Botany ?

Lester F. Ward : Descriptions of Seven Species of Cycadeoidea from the Iron Ore Deposits of Maryland. ||

March 13, 1897— 273d Meeting.

The President in the chair and 30 persons present.

The following communications were presented :

T. W. Vaughan and R. T. Hill : The Lower Cretaceous Gry- pheas of the Texas Region.

Charles F. Dawson : The Dissemination of Infectious Diseases by Insects.^]"

*To be published in Monographs U. S. Geol. Survey.

fThe Alaska Live Mammoth Story. <Forest and Stream, XLIX, pp. 124-125, Aug. 14, 1897.

J A Study in Insect Parasites. <Bull. V, Technical Series, No. 5, Di vision of Entomology, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

§To be published in Report of the Bering Sea Commission for 1896.

|| Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XI, pp. 1-17, 1897.

flTo be published in Ann. Report for 1897, Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Proceedings. ix

William Palmer : The Type (?) of a New Old Species. Sylvester D. Judd : Sexual Dimorphism in Crustacea.

March 27, 1897— 274th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 30 persons present. The following communications were presented : M. B. Waite : Factors Governing Pear Blight.* E. A. De Schweinitz : Some Methods of Generating Formal dehyde and its Use as a Disinfectant/^ , Theo. Holm : The Grass Embryo and its Constituents. %

April 10, 1897— 275th Meeting.

Ex-President W. H. Ball in the chair and 31 persons present.

The following communications were presented :

Theo. Gill and C. H. Townsend : Diagnosis of Deep-sea Fishes. (Read by title.) §

Jonathan Dwight, Jr. : A Species of Shearwater (Puffinus as- similis Gould) New to the North American Fauna.||

Sylvester D. Judd : Antennal Circulation in Crangonyx.

Charles T. Simpson : Notes on the Classification of Unios.^f

H. C. Oberholser : The American Golden Warblers.

T. Wayland Vaughan : Notes on a Monograph of the Eocene Corals of the United States.

April 24, 1897— 276th Meeting.

Ex-President W. H. Dall in the chair and 31 persons present.

Edward L. Greene exhibited and commented upon specimens of Viola emarginata and V. heterophylla.

The following communications were presented :

M. A. Carleton : Climate as an Element in Wheat Environ ment.

* Substance in article entitled ' Cause and Prevention of Pear Blight.' <Yearbook U. S. Dept. Agric. for 1895, pp. 295-300, 1896.

t Journal of the American Public Health Association, October, 1896 (in part).

J Am. Journ. Sci., iv, pp. 13-26, July, 1897.

gProc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xi, pp. 231-234, September 17, 1897.

|| Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xi, pp. 69-70, April 21, 1897.

f Nautilus, xi, pp. 18-23, June, 1897.

JI— BIOL. Soc. WASH., VOL. XI, 1897.

x The Biological Society of Washington.

Frederick V. Coville : Plant Food of the Wild Ducks in Chesa peake Bay.

Frederick V. Coville : The Water Hyacinth, Piaropus crassipes, as an Obstruction to Navigation in Florida.

L. H. Dewey : The Eastward Migration of Certain Weeds in America.*

May 8, 1897 -277th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 56 persons present.

The following communication was presented :

C. Hart Merriam : Suggestions fora New Method of Weighing Species and Subspecies.f

By invitation, Hon. Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, presented an address on the same subject.

May 22, 1897— 278th Meeting.

Ex-President Theodore Gill in the chair and 23 persons present. David White exhibited eroded quartz pebbles found on the

summit of a mountain, commenting on the probable cause. The following communications were presented: Erwin F. Smith : A Bacterial Disease of Cruciferous Plants J B. T. Galloway : The Effects of Environment on Host and

Parasite in Certain Diseases of Plants.

V. K. Chesnut : The Poison of the Common Black Nightshade.§

October 9, 1897— 279th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 29 persons present. L. 0. Howard exhibited a specimen of Belostoma colossicum from Cuba, comparing it with the native Benasus griseu*. The following communications were presented : R. T. Hill : Notes on Antillean Faunas, Past and Present. B. W. Evermann: The Catfishes of Louisiana. || Theo. Gill : The Insufficiency of the Order Bunotheria.

* Asa Gray Bulletin, v, pp. 31-34, June 11, 1897.

t Suggestions for a New Method of Discriminating between Species and Subspecies. < Science, n. s., v. pp. 753-758, May 14, 1897.

\Pseadomonas campestris (Pammel) : the Cause of a Brown Rot in Cru ciferous Plants. <Centralb. fur Hakteriologie Abt. ii, Band 3. 1897.

| To be published in a Farmer's Bulletin, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, with descriptions of other poisonous plants.

|| To be published in Bull. U. S. Fish Commission for 1898.

Proceedings. xi

October 23, 1897— 280th Meeting.

The President in the chair and 37 persons present.

The following communications were presented:

F. A. Lucas and C. W. Stiles : A Dangerous Parasite of the Fur-seal.

C. W. Stiles : The International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature.

M. B. Waite : A New Peach and Plum Disease.

F. V. Coville: The History and Distribution of Abies shastensis*

By invitation, Prof. Mitsukuri, of the Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan, addressed the Society on the condition and pro gress of biological science in Japan.

November 6, 1897— 281st Meeting.

The President in the chair and 39 persons present.

Lester F. Ward exhibited Prosopis juliflora from Kansas ; also specimens of Psoralea tenuiflora, commenting on its tumbleweed propensities ; and of Lotus americanus, a peculiar compass-plant.

E. L. Morris exhibited alcoholic specimens of vertebrates and invertebrates, showing methods of sectioning the alimentary canal.

The following communications were presented : Charles L. Pollard : A Publication Problem in Botany. M. G. Motter : Underground Zoology.f

F. A. Lucas : The Fossil Bison of North America.

C. Hart Merriam : Life Zones of the Olympic Mountains.

November 20, 1897— 282d Meeting.

The President in the chair and 40 persons present.

David White exhibited various specimens of fossil carbonif erous ferns.

Erwin F. Smith showed a new form of hypodermic injection syringe.

The following communications were presented :

O. F; Cook : A New Wingless Fly from Liberia^

V. K. Chesnut : Some Recent Cases of Mushroom Poisoning.

Erwin F. Smith : Bacterial Diseases of Plants.

* To be published in Garden and Forest.

t To be published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

t To be published in Brandtia.

xii The Biological Society of Washington.

December 4, 1897— 283d Meeting.

The President in the chair and 37 persons present.

Frederick V. Coville exhibited a globose mass of pine needles found on the shore of a lake in northern Idaho, commenting on the probable cause of its formation.

The following communications were presented :

L. J. Briggs : Causes of Water Movement in Soils.*

Sylvester D. Judd : Protective Adaptations of Insects from an Ornithological Point of View.

Theo. Gill : The Distinctive Characters of the Molinse and Ranzaniinse.

C. W. Stiles : The Honorary Ph. D.

December 18, 1897— 284th Meeting. (EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING.)

The President in the chair and 29 persons present.

The annual reports of the Recording Secretary and Treasurer for the year 1897 were presented, and officers for the year 1898 were elected as follows :

President— L. O. Howard.

Vice-Presidents Richard Rathbun, C. D.Walcott, B. E. Fernow, F. V. Coville.

Recording Secretary Charles L. Pollard.

Corresponding Secretary F. A. Lucas.

Treasurer F. H. Knowlton.

Additional Members of the Council William H. Ashmead, Ed ward L. Greene, Ch. Wardell Stiles, F. W. True, M. B. Waite.

The following standing committees were appointed by the Chair:

On Communications B. E. Fernow, chairman ; F. V. Coville, M. B. Waite, E. A. De Schweinitz, W. H. Ashmead.

On Publications C. Hart Merriam, chairman ; T. S. Palmer, F. H. Knowlton.

* Substance embodied in a Bulletin of the Division of Soils, *U. S. De partment of Agriculture, now in preparation,

VOL. XI, PP. 1-17 MARCH 13, 1897






On November 4. 1893, I read a paper before this Society on ' Cycadean Trunks in the American Cretaceous,' which under the fuller title, ; Fossil Cycadean Trunks of North America, with a Revision of the Genus Cycadeoidea Buckland,' was published in the ninth volume of its Proceedings.! At that date only one species of cycadean trunks had been published from the Iron Ore beds of Maryland. This was founded on four specimens that had long lain in the Museum of the Maryland Academy of Sciences at Baltimore. They had been collected by Philip Tyson before the civil war, and he had mentioned them in his report as State Agricultural Chemist in 1860, recognizing their cycadean character and applying to them the term " Cycas," apparently without intending thereby to refer them to the living genus by that name, but merely to denote their resemblance to the trunks of plants familiar to all under that name. Much interest, I learn, was excited at the time by the discovery of these specimens, and the Maryland Academy of Sciences is said to have discussed their nature at a number of its meetings. Indeed, I have been

* Read before the Society February 27, 1897. Published by permission of the Director of the U. S. National Museum.

fProc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. IX, Washington, 1894, pp. 75-88.

1— BIOL. Soc. WASH., VOL. XI, 1897 (1)

2 Wurd Species of Cycadeo idea from Maryland.

told that the subject came at last to monopolize its proceedings and that considerable asperity was ultimately created in the dis cussions, so much so that all at length became tired of the subject and it was allowed to drop completely out of their deliberations, never to be revived. At all events, it was nearly twenty-five years before any one's attention was again prominently called to these objects.

Mr. Tyson, however, had taken the trouble during the time that the question was uppermost to have photographs made of one of these specimens. He had also found much silicified wood in the Iron Ore beds, and he caused some large blocks of this to appear in the same view with the cycad trunk. Prints of this view were sent to many of the prominent paleontologists of this country and Europe. Among those receiving them was Dr. J. S. Newberry, and since his death his copy has been found at the Geological Museum of Columbia University and kindly placed in my hands by Dr. Arthur Hollick. In 1885 Mr. W J McGee, having learned that these specimens were still in the Museum of the Maryland Academy of Sciences, was permitted, through the kindness of the president of the Academy, Professor P. R. Uhler, to have a series of photographs taken of the two principal trunks. Copies of these photographs are also in my hands, and they were shortly after reproduced and published, forming plates clxxiv to clxxx of Professor Fontaine's Potomac or Younger Mesozoic Flora.* As stated in my former paper, Professor Fontaine de scribed these trunks under the name Tysonia Marylandica, but as they do not belong to a genus distinct from those of Europe, Capellini and Solms-Laubach restored them to Buckland's genus Cycadeoida. The specimens are now in the Geological Museum of Johns Hopkins University.

Soon after the appearance of Professor Fontaine's work in 1890, Professor Uhler succeeded in obtaining a few additional fragments, but interest in the subject was not fairly aroused until about the year 1893, when Mr. Arthur Bibbins of the Woman's College of Baltimore began his remarkable series of discoveries which has resulted in bringing to light no less than fifty-nine specimens of these interesting objects. An account of his re searches and results was published by me in 1894,f at which time

* Monographs of the U. S. Geol. Survey, vol. XV, Atlas.

t Recent Discoveries of Cycadean Trunks in the Potomac Formation of Maryland. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vol. XXT, No. 7, July 20, 1894, pp. 291-299.

Species of Cy cad eo idea from Maryland. 3

he had already added thirty-five specimens to all that had been hitherto reported. Since that date he has continued actively to prosecute this work and has secured .many more. Too great praise cannot be bestowed, either upon him for his successful method of work and his untiring zeal and industry, nor upon the Woman's College and its able president, Dr. John F. Goucher, for the liberal spirit shown, the keen scientific interest mani fested, and the substantial aid rendered in advancing this work. I also stated in the paper last referred to that through the generosity of President Goucher and all connected with that in stitution this entire collection had been loaned to the United States National Museum, and turned over to the Department of Fossil Plants for systematic elaboration, and the additional speci mens, as fast as they were discovered, have also been regularly sent to Washington to join the rest. I had already commenced work on the important material of the same general nature from the Black Hills, an account of which was given in the paper presented to this Society of which I have spoken. It was de cided to embody all the material in the Museum and all that could be secured from any American deposits in one general monograph of the Fossil Cycadean Trunks of North America, Dr. F. H. Knowlton to assume charge of all that pertained to the microscopic study of the internal structure and I to deal with the external and macroscopic aspects. I had hoped to have completed my part of the work before this, but many causes conspired to retard progress. Other pressing duties, both in the field and in the office, reduced the amount of time that it was possible to devote to it. The necessity for seeing the European specimens practically obliged me to spend a season on the other side of the Atlantic, the results of which had to be worked up and published.* The amount of labor involved was also very great, and the progress made is as satisfactory as could be ex pected under the circumstances. Much has been done on all classes of the material, but latterly I have been devoting myself chiefly to the Maryland specimens. It has been necessary to study anew all those obtained by Tyson, now in the Geological Museum of Johns Hopkins University, ample facilities for which have been generously extended to me by Professor W. B. Clark. Professor Uhler has also kindly allowed me to describe those in the Museum of the Maryland Academy of Sciences, and he sent

* See the Sixteenth Annual Report of the U. 8. Geological Survey, pp. 463-542.

4 Ward Specie* of Oycade&qdea, from Mari/Iaml.

the two principal ones to Washington for the purpose. Artistic photographs have been taken of these and of all the more im portant trunks in Mr. Bibbins' collection.

A year ago I had proceeded far enough to have discovered that the cycadean trunks from the Iron Ore beds of Maryland embraced no less than seven good species which could be clearly separated and described, and since that time I have accomplished the work of describing and naming these species and of assign ing each specimen to its appropriate specific group. As it is very convenient in the general discussion to be able to speak of these forms in a definite way, I have decided to publish these names with the descriptions, so that the new species may not need to be mentioned prior to such description, thereby cum bering the literature with nomina nuda. It is, however, clearly to be understood that these descriptions are not final, as they are based entirely on external characters and such macroscopic observations as I have been able to make of the internal parts prior, for the most part, to the cutting of sections, and do not embody any results that may be arrived at by Dr. Knowlton after a microscopic study of the various tissues. This latter, however, can scarcely result in reducing the number of species, as the more general characters are those that have been chiefly relied upon for specific differentiation, and if it results in increas ing the number by showing that some of the specimens possess internal characters that cannot be specifically united with the others, this will lead to no confusion.

With regard to the classification adopted, I may remark that Buckland, in studying for the first time the fossil trunks from the Purbeck beds of the Portland quarries, called to his assist ance the great contemporary botanist, Robert Brown, whom he expressly credits with the suggestion that the differences between the fossil and living forms are sufficient to establish a new family distinct from t he existing family of Cycadese, and to which the name Cycadeoideae was given. The generic name Cycadeoidea was also employed at the same time, but it afterwards transpired that this was not approved by Robert Brown, who only proposed the family name. Brown must therefore be credited with the name Cycadeoidea? and Buckland with Cycadeoidea. The wisdom of Brown's suggestion has been abundantly vindicated by the sub sequent study of these forms, and the more their internal anatomy is made known, especially the nature of their inflorescence and

Species of Oycadeoidea, from Maryland. 5

fructification, the clearer it becomes that all fossil cycadean vege tation from beds below the Tertiary represented a group distinct from the recent Cycadaceae. When the nature of the reproductive apparatus was made known by Carruthers in the remarkable spec imen which came from Luccomb Chine, on the Isle of Wight, he proposed for it a new generic name Bennettites, and Count Solms- Laubach established on the same data the family name Bennettitex. But it soon became obvious that the restricting of this name to this one form was simply based on our ignorance of the reproduct ive apparatus of other trunks, and wherever further data as to the latter have been brought forward they have strengthened the presumption that most or all fossil forms possessed a similar re productive apparatus. Count Solms has therefore, in his latest important paper on the Bennettitese of the Italian museums, re ferred them all to Buckland's genus Cycadeoidea. In this, too, he incidentally includes many other European and some Ameri can forms, while adhering to the one species of Bennettites, B. Gibsonianus, in which the fruit is known, and as a result of an examination of photographs of our American forms he has stated in letters to me that certain of them are certainly to be referred to Bennettites. But in such studies as I have been able to make of these forms, whether from Maryland or from the Rocky Mountain region, I am unable to see anything that can be called a generic difference, and they all resemble the Italian forms more closely than they do those from Portland. I therefore, in the former paper, grouped them all as Cycadeoidea, and I have not since seen any reason for departing from this view. Until their internal structure is further studied I shall adhere to this name, and in view of all that has been said I am disposed to extend Robert Brown's group name to all the Mesozoic cycadean vegetation, whether represented by trunks or by foliage, fruit, or other organs, on the general assumption that however many genera there may have been, if they could be correlated the foliage, etc., would belong to the trunks found in the same general beds. In a matter of which so little is known, all is at best provisional, and a convenient and flexible nomenclature is the chief result to be aimed at.

The full classification of the Cycadacea? would therefore be to use that term to represent the entire family, both living and fossil, and to subdivide it into the two subfamilies, the Cycadean for the living forms and the Cycadeoidese for the fossil forms. This is the classification adopted below.

6 }VciT<l XjH'cirx of Oycodeoideo, from Maryland.



Subfamily CVCADEOIDE.E Robert Brown.

Fossil cycadean vegetation of Mesozoic age represented by trunks, foliage, and fruits, and embracing a large number of genera and species, tbe trunks usually not accompanied by other organs than the bases of the leafstalks, and reproductive axes included in a false bark or "armor" generally of considerable thickness; foliage usually also found separate from other parts, and fruits and rarely flowers similarly isolated. The number of genera and species is therefore necessarily duplicated and mul tiplied, owing to the impossibility of correlating the detached parts, but that those found at similar horizons and localities be longed together admits of no doubt. The trunks differ in size and form much as do living Cycadaceae (Cycadeae), and characters of all parts show resemblances to existing genera. It is, however, probably incorrect to say that the latter have descended from the former, or that the fossil forms are embryonic types of the living forms, and the correct conception of the subfamily is em bodied in the law of sympodial development.* according to which the principal trunk line of descent which the fossil forms repre sent, and which attained its maximum development in Mesozoic time, became extinct, while inferior lines or branches represented by living forms persisted into modern times. This accounts for the fact so prominently insisted upon by Count Solms-Laubach and others that the fossil forms, at least those in which the re productive organs are preserved embedded in the armor of the trunks (Bennettites), are structurally more advanced than the living Cycadaceae, a fact which finds its counterpart in the Lepi- dophyta and Calamarhu of the Carboniferous and in the Dino- sauria of the Mesozoic.

Genus Cycadeoidea Buckland.

1827. Cycadeoidea Buckland, Proc. Geol. Soc. London, vol. I, Xo. 8, pp.

80-81 (session of June 6, 1827).

1828. Cycadeoidea Buckland, Trans. Geol. Soc. London, 2d ser., vol. II,

pp. 375-401, pi. xlvi-xlix.

Fossil trunks of Cycadeoidese, chiefly low (30-90 centimeters in height) and more or less conical or oval in shape (15-75 centimeters in diameter),

*Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. V, Washington, 1890, p. 24. Lester F. Ward: The Course of Biologic Evolution (reprint of above), p. 2.

Species of Cycadeo idea from Maryland. 7

usually simple, but sometimes branching, with a depression at the sum mit, in the middle of which, when not decayed, there is a terminal hud of conical shape ; terminal bud, however, usually wanting in the fossils, leaving a cavity commonly known as the "crow's nest," by which name for this reason the specimens from the Portland quarries are popularly known. The armor consists of appendicular and reproductive organs surrounding and enveloping the axis, the former being the bases of the leaf stalks or petioles, which are surrounded by a dense mat of ramentum or fine hairs.

The leaf stalks are normally four-sided and four-angled, the lateral angles acute and nearly equal, the vertical angles obtuse but unequal, the lower much sharper than the upper, so as to render the cross section sub- rhombic. This form varies on the one hand to a true rhomb, and on the other hand to a true triangle, the most frequent intermediate type being that in which the upper angle is wanting, and the two upper sides are re duced to a simple curve or arch, so that the cross section assumes the form of a drawn bow and bowstring, the arch formed by the two upper sides representing the bow and the two lower sides, with their reentrant angle, representing the bowstring. In size the leaf stalks vary from 15 to o5 millimeters in width measured between the lateral angles, and from 5 to 20 millimeters in height measured between the vertical angles, or from the lower angle to the summit of the arch formed by the two upper sides. The line joining the former is not generally horizontal or at right angles with the axis of the trunk, but one is usually slightly lower than the other. The line joining the latter is not generally vertical or parallel to the axis of the trunk, but one is usually a little on one side of the other. The only portion of the leaf bases that is always preserved in the fossil state is the mat of ramentaceous hairs that surrounds them. In the great majority of cases the petioles themselves are decayed to a greater or less distance below the summit of these mats, which thus constitute walls surrounding and enclosing the portion that remains of the petioles, if any, and in their absence forming definite cavities having the shape of the cross section of the leaf stalks, which constitute the leaf scars. These leaf scars, with or without the lower portion of the leaf bases, penetrate to the axis of the trunk and form a varying angle with it. Normally this angle is a right angle overall the central portions of the trunk, while belowr the organs are slightly descending and above more and more as cending to the apex, where they become vertical. At the summit, too, they diminish in size and usually in form, and are reduced in and imme diately around the terminal bud to small triangular or polygonal bracts (peruhe of Miquel). In some species (C. Uhleri) all the organs of the body of the trunk are deflexed, and in one (C. Goucheriana) there is a definite zone near the middle of the trunk, below which they are descending and above which they are ascending. The leaf scars are arranged in a more or less exact quincunx order, and usually in two sets of spiral rows around the trunk, in one of which they ascend from the base in the direction from left to right and in the other from right to left, crossing each other at varying angles, and both rows making a certain angle with the axis of

8 Ward Species of Oy&tdeoidea from M<tnjl<m<i

the trunk, which varies with the species and more or less with different specimens of the same species. One of the two sets of rows is usually more distinct than the other, but the more distinct rows sometimes pass upward from left to right and sometimes from right to left. The bases of the petioles when present and well preserved often show at the surface presented to view a row of pits all round parallel to the walls and at differ ent distances from the margin representing the vascular strands. Other such pits are sometimes present near the center. The petioles are fre quently disarticulated at a natural joint, which may fall near or at the summit of the scar, or it may fall some distance within the scar. In some species there are two such joints separated by a node. Occasionally these joints consist of a thin membranous diaphragm stretching across the petiole, of firmer texture than the rest of its substance. Even where the petioles are wholly absent the position of the joints or diaphragms can sometimes be determined by a sharp ridge round the inside of the scar. The walls are made up of the ramentum of two adjacent petioles. In some cases these matted masses are so dense as to produce a simple homogene ous plate on all four of the sides, which, where the petioles are wanting, forms a deep, angled cavity of exactly the shape of a cross section of the petiole. Usually the portion of the wall furnished by each of the adjacent petioles can be distinguished by a junction line or commissure, visible along the outer edge of the wall. This commissure sometimes takes the form of an intermediate plate of a less dense consistency than the two outer plates. In other cases this central plate is much thicker than the two outer ones, which latter may be reduced to the appearance of thin linings of the scars. In still other cases the central portion is more or less open and cavitous. The walls vary from 1 millimeter or even less to o millimeters or, in rare cases, 8 millimeters in thickness.

The other class of organs that help to make up the armor are the repro ductive organs. These are borne on all parts of the surface of the trunks except, perhaps, in immediate connection with the terminal bud, which is exclusively an organ of growth. They are scattered about with very little order over the surface among the leaf scars. They are usually of a harder substance than that of the foliar organs and better adapted to re sist erosive influences to which the fossil trunks are exposed. Where the trunks are worn, therefore, the reproductive axes are liable to protrude somewhat. Viewed from without, they usually present an organ with an elliptical cross section, the longer diameter being nearly horizontal, vari able in size, but always larger than the leaf scars. The central portion is often wanting, and a funnel-shaped cavity less deep than the leaf scars takes its place. When the central portions are present they show mark ings having the form which the outer ends of the essential organs pre sent, which is very variable and usually obscure. Surrounding the cen tral portions are several rows of open scars arranged concentrically. These scars are sometimes triangular, quadrangular, polygonal, or nearly circular; but the most of them, especially the outer ones, are somewhat crescent-shaped, having the concave side toward the center. The inflo rescence is a spadix surrounded by an involucre consisting of the eomvn-

Species of Cycadeoidea from Maryland. 9

trically arranged bracts or scales whose scars were last described. The spadix has a receptacle at the base, located near the inner surface of the armor and supplied with fibers from the axis. From the receptacle there rise two kinds of organs, first, peduncles or filaments, known in a few specimens to bear seeds and conjectured in one specimen to bear anthers at their summits, and, second, elongated chaff-like scales more numerous than the latter and rising above them, the upper portions expanding and forming a dense mat or covering over the essential parts. In most cases all these organs are wholly included in the armor, the only seeds that have thus far been found being deeply embedded in the tissues. The organs of inflorescence are probably axillary, but owing to the proximity of the leaf scars this is not generally apparent. In regions of the surface where they occur they usually crowd the leaf scars and cause variations in their shape. This effect is most marked on the upper sides of the scars, often quite obscuring or obliterating their normal features.

The axis of the trunk inclosed in the armor when complete consists of four parts, which, enumerated from without inward, may be denomi nated respectively as (1) the libro-cambium, (2) the parenchymatous wood, sometimes called the cortical parenchyma, (3) the wood proper or fibro vascular zone, and (4) the medulla or pith. In many cases the libro- cambium zone cannot be definitely distinguished from the cortical paren chyma, and nothing is visible but the large and numerous vascular bun dles passing out from the interior into the leaves ; but sometimes there occurs a definite line or thin zone of loose tissue immediately below the bases of the leaf stalks. There is usually a zone of apparently homoge neous cellular tissue, often of considerable thickness, filling the interval between the armor and the woody axis. The woody zone consists of one or more rings of exogenous tissue traversed by medullaiy rays. Where more than one, they are separated by thin interstices of parenchymatous tissue. The medulla is usually large and composed of coarse parenchyma.

Cycadeoidea Marylandica (Font.) Cap. and Solms.

18(>0. Ct/cas sp. Tyson, First Report State Agric. Chem. Maryland, p. 42. 1870. Bennettites sp. Carruthers, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. XXVI,

p. 708. 1879. Cycadeoidea sp. Fontaine, Am. Journ. Sci., 3d ser. , vol. XVII, p.

' 157. 1889. Tysonia Marylandica Fontaine, Potomac or Younger Mesozoic Flora,

Monogr. (l. S. Geol. Survey, vol. XV, p. 193, pi. clxxiv-clxxx. 1892. Cycadeoidea Marylandica (Font.) Cap. and Solms, Mem. Real. Accad.

Sci. 1st Bologna, ser. V, torn. II, pp. 179, 180, 186.

Trunks of medium or rather large size, almost always more or less later ally compressed so as to be elliptical in cross section, conical in shape or slightly narrowed near the base with a terminal bud set in a slight de pression at the summit, simple, or in one specimen, apparently having one branch ; mineral constitution very variable according to mode of preservation, but usually not hard, flinty, or heavy and compact ; reddish, pinkish, drab, or ash colored ; 25 to 45 centimeters high, 24 to 40 centi-

2 HIOL. Soc. WASH., VOL. XI, 1897

10 \V(n'd Species of Cycadeoideafrom Munjloml.

meters in longer and 12 to 26 centimeters in shorter diameter, with a girth of from 70 centimeters