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Division of Mollusks

Sectional Library

Wiel

PeELIGOER

A Quarterly published by CALIFORNIA MALACOZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.

Berkeley, California

Division of volusk® Sectionc! Library

Volume 10

July 1, 1967 to April 1, 1968

Page II THE VELIGER Vol. 10; No. 4

Foreword to Volume 10

With the completion of Volume 10 we have reached a milestone on the road of the development of The Veliger. This is, then, an occasion to take stock of the past to review the accomplishments and to assess the failures.

Of all the goals we had set for ourselves about ten years ago, we think we have attained most: our journal has been accepted on a world-wide basis, as evidenced not only by the ever-increasing number of subscribers and members in all parts of the world, but also by the fact that we receive manuscripts from authors in many lands. Our aim to produce a journal of high quality, not only in content, but also in appearance, has been achieved, we believe, within reason. Two important failures, however, still plague us. The first and, to us, an important one is the fact that we have not succeeded in producing an issue completely free of all typographical errors and this in spite of extraordinary precautions we have taken, and also in spite of the unusual skill brought to the task of proof- reading by Mrs. Jean Cate of Los Angeles. The blame for the remaining errors rests with the editor himself.

The second failure is the one that has plagued us since the first issue -— finances. But again, as in the past, we must assume the responsibility for this: we have steadfastly refused to permit this problem to force us into seeking aid through applying for governmental grants. That our situation is not completely untenable is due to the most generous contributions made by a few individuals in the form of many uncounted hours of volunteer labor. Fore- most among these volunteers are Mrs. Emily Reid whose artwork continues to lend that extra touch of beauty and attractiveness to our journal; Mrs. Cate, who not only checks every word set in type for correct spelling but also, with the aid of a magnificent malacological library and a sound knowledge of the field itself, often is able to pre- vent erroneous citations; Mrs. R. Stohler who, through the years, has not only assisted with many menial tasks, such as collating, preparing for mailing, recording and checking and double-checking, but also has encouraged the editor in his desire to avoid asking for governmental assistance.

What measure of success we have had with the development of The Veliger is also due to many contributions made in various ways by a large number of persons. If we single out a few for special mention, it is not to imply that the contributions of those not listed were less important. Among those who have assisted the editor with their technical advice are Mr. Armand Lamadrid of Los Angeles, an efficient linotype operator and mechanic as well as a staunch friend; Mr. John Schoen and the late Earl Gustafson of the Printing Department of the University of California in Berkeley have been ever ready with helpful advice, suggestions and real practical assistance.

Another group of men and women who have given and continue to give unstintingly of their talents and time are the members of the Editorial Board who spend many hours reviewing the manuscripts submitted for publi- cation and whose recommendations are the guides for the decisions by the editor. Last most assuredly not least, the members of the Executive Board of the California Malacozoological Society give generously of their time, talents and substance.

Finally, the craftsmen at the Printing Department, who seem to take special pains to turn out a high quality product deserve to be included in this list.

To all the many individuals, named and unnamed alike, we express our deeply felt gratitude, hoping at the same time to be permitted in the future to continue taking advantage of their knowledge, skills and talents so that The Veliger may continue to develop and, hopefully, to become self-supporting at a time not too distant in the future.

Sincerely, Your Editor

Vol. 10; No. 4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A checklist of intertidal mollusks for Bahia Willard and the southwestern portion of Bahia San Luis Gonzaga, State of Baja California, Mexico

Heten DuSHANE & GALE G. SPHON ......... 233 A ctenostomatous ectoproct epizoic on the chiton Ischno- chiton mertensiu Eucene S. HELFMAN A new cowrie species from the Philippines CrawrForp N. Cate & FRANZ A. SCHILDER ..... 382 A new marine mollusk from Mozambique in the genus Festilyria Prtspry & Oxsson, 1954 CGEIRTON STOKES) WEAVER | 3)..000 cleo eee + 442 A new species of Marginella from the coast of Brazil JeEAN-JAcgues VAN Mot & BernaArD TurscuH 196

A new terebrid species with check list of Terebridae from

the Red Sea Twita BRATCHER & RoBert D. BurcH

Aplysia vaccaria, a new host for the pinnotherid crab

Opisthopus transversus

INNEHONE CRAIG BEONDE i.e )aicie oe cele ele ls 375

A quantitative sampling of the mollusks of Batangas Bay, Philippines

AUPANN IV Les CUNT Seiya statcsche gel ovoi</ssre.64) save clorons\e)z1 ove 83

A radula muscle preparation from the gastropod, Kelletia kelletiit, for biochemical assays

Howarp M. FEeper & REUBEN LASKER ........ 283 A re-interpretation of the sand-pipes described by ADE- GOKE

NJOLUNMWVMEVANS prc Aeon listen ererets elecensetete ts 174 A remarkable new cancellariid from the Philippines, with comments on other taxa \ NATE), (COC iss yo ceo Ben Ge eo oraN 286 A review of the living tectibranch snails of the genus Volvulella, with descriptions of a new subgenus and species from Texas TAR OLDY Wi EVARRY oc tons ciel sieic visio vais vee we 133 Boiled lettuce and cress as diet supplements for certain species of mollusks

STW VOI ERE: Rimmoeee eect me Seca, ict ta ne. Sears, 446 Coan molluscan collection at University of California, Davis

AMESBWON/ABEN TINE 9 (rjc 0s 0c celeisie sles eaiere see 293 Effects of feeding by Armina californica on the biolumi- nescence of Renilla koellikeri IAN SWBERTS CH | 5 there cette svaisucrege a dale ee 440 Enzymatic defenses of certain snails against metal ions Linpsay R. WINKLER & Lots Wonc CuI ...... 188 Epitonium (Asperiscala) billeeana (DUSHANE & Brat- CHER, 1965) non Scalina billeeana DUSHANE & BratcHer, 1965 Heten DuSHANE

THE VELIGER

Page ITI

Freshwater mollusks collected by the United States and Mexican Boundary Surveys

Dic HTaWahAViOR won) ss ene ale seco ole eles 152 Invalid names in oysters

ISENINETH, S)AVBOSSie o/s -tekeraiels isin toskeca siaveictel: 447 Itinerary of the voyage of H. M. S. Blossom, 1825 to 1828

JOSEP HE ROSEWATERD A477 yr evil aetiier 350 Marine fouling and boring organisms in Monterey Harbor

EFC pEVADEREIER sacs celestial: RSS eke n iolebeee 327 Mating behavior in Mitra idae MEtvit1, 1893 EAN SMP CATE atten talcoiels canter sacle soln eee o 247

Mode of feeding and diet, and synthesis of studies on marine pelecypods from Tomales Bay, California

DON SMIAURER En cia ctv ne iiotrtd Aetren oa eras 72 New checklist in preparation

UD Ya SieADERRV A nye stele crersia Mesto Se bin oe tsoloa eres 89 New record of Conus ebraeus in Costa Rica

J CSEPHEREHOUBRICK MERE Eran eee eer nir 292

New records of Nudibranchia (Gastropoda : Opistho- branchia) from the central and west-central Pacific with a description of a new species

DAVIDSKCAVOUNG © causes Wee Ca ece he tee 159

Note on the northward spreading of Mya arenaria Lin-

NAEUS in Alaska

AMES Bo GROSS 2%, uReyaaee ty, horeania acim nea ee 203 Note on the radula of Mitromica Berry, 1958

JAMES) EV MCILEAN (eterno eee ae aes 58 Notes on cephalopods from Northern California

ROBERT: Re WALMADGE 75) svn). « cistteler so cle Nomtnsierls 200

Notes on Morum dennisoni (REEVE) and related species S. PETER DANCE & WILLIAM K. EMERSON ..... 91 Notes on the range extension of the boring clam Penitella conradi VALENCIENNES and its occurrence in the shell of the California mussel STEVEN) Ey MEREDITH «214. doteioitiec eens eee 281 Observations on Hipponix conicus (SCHUMACHER, 1817)

WALTER OLIVER CERNOHORSKY ......--se0c0: 275 On the identity of Phos laevigatus A. ApAMs, 1851 WIERTAMOKeR ES MERSONSEOM See ene: 99

Preliminary observations on the feeding behavior of Conus purpurascens Broverip, 1833 James W. NyBaKKEN Relationship between Penitella penita (Conran, 1837) and other organisms of the rocky shore Joun W. Evans Reproduction in Olivella biplicata DA CRAIGZEDWARDS sc) ieselce siete otele eleven era cir cie ate 297 Role of snails’ disease in the biological control of Achatina fulica Bownicu, 1822 on the Andamans P. D. Srivastava & Y. N. SRIVASTAVA ......... 320 Semele martini (ReEEvE, 1853) of southern Brazil and Uruguay MicueEt A. KLAPPENBACH

Page IV

THE VELIGER

Vol. 10; No. 4

Spawning notes, I. Hexaplex erythrostoma Fay Henry WoLrson Structure of the bivalve rectum. - I. Morphology Tuomas C. JecLA & MicHaEL J. GREENBERG ... 253 Structure of the bivalve rectum. - II. Notes on cell types and innervation.

Tuomas C. JEGLA & MICHAEL J. GREENBERG .. 314 Studies on East Australian cowries Marta SCHILDER & FRANZ ALFRED SCHILDER ... 103

Studies on the Mytilus edulis community in Alamitos Bay, California: III. The effects of reduced dissolved oxygen and chlorinity concentrations on survival and byssus thread production

Donatp J. ReisH & JosepH L. Ayers, Jr. .... 384

Studies on the vitality of the Japanese pearl oyster Pterza (Pinctada) martensu (DUNKER) under abnormal conditions. - I. Oxygen uptake and shell movement in sea water of low oxygen content

AUETUO MEIVAUTIs Fores cysregsislovcxsie| neter su arorstetarereterens 342

Taxonomic placement of Coralliophila incompta BrErry,

1960, with the proposal of a new genus, Attzliosa WTA UINYE IK IVT So0d000000c0000800000 379

The behavioral role and the structure of the aesthetes of

chitons

JONG GK © JMG OIC COVE ON mewn cata MIRAI. UNM TE I oe 77 The cowries of the Ryukyu Islands CRAWEORDEINEILICn CATER Cerin 13

The date of publication of K1ENER’s Mitra monograph in the “Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes”

WALTER OLIVER CERNOHORSKY ...........+5. 349

The egg mass and veligers of Limacina helicina Puirrs

Wine AN, JUNUNNTNDS 5 o0000d00000000000000 322

The functional morphology of Lyonsia californica Con-

RAD, 1837 (Bivalvia)

WATTERG NAR CHITIn eieicg ways etion enna arena ae 305 The generic classification of cowries ERAN ZPACEREDESCHILDER Mn 264

The Muricidae of Fiji. Part I - Subfamilies Muricinae

and Tritonaliinae _ plus an addendum WALTER OLIVER CERNOHORSKY .............. 111 The Ovulidae, Pediculariidae and Triviidae of Fii WALTER OLIVER CERNOHORSKY ..........+0- 353 The radulae of nine species of Mitridae JEANG MUG CATE g ccrocie: scopes siiscstohorensna nko mer nets cnet 192

The radula of Zierliana woldemariu (KiENER, 1839) Jean M. Cate The rediscovery of Erosaria menkeana (DEsHAYES, 1863)

CRAWHORDENEILIN CATER nreeneieri incr 198 The reproductive system of the British Turridae EDMUND SEL. SMITH ‘5 shi0iesiescr mir Pera tseene says 176

The retention of lamellibranch larvae in the Niantic Estuary Jounes K. Moore & Nr1son MarsHALL ..... 10 The role of behavior in determining the intertidal zona- tion of Littorina planaxis Puiuiprt, 1847, and Littor- ina scutulata Goutp, 1849 Cart E. Bock « RicHarp E. JOHNSON ........ 42 The shell ornament of Hysteroconcha and Hecuba (Bi-

valvia): a test case for inferential functional mor- phology Ropert M.. GARTER 4 S51. pio a%.c yee so ee 5S) Two new species of British turrids EDMUND H. SMITH) 26 cals so-so eee 1

West American mollusk types at the British Museum (Natural History). - IV. CARPENTER’s Mazatlan col: lection

A; Myra KEEN} gs. oes cae oe see eee 389

Western Australian cowries

expanded report

G@RAWEORDENEIIT CATERER ener nee 212

Zonation in marine gastropods of Costa Rica and species diversity GERALD J... BAKUS, (o-/os0itis fi croc cee 207 AUTHOR INDEX

BaKUS; GERALD Jicetertt- sete ee een 207 BEONDEWANDEONE CRAIG EEE eee rrr 375 BERTSGH, HANS) caus 5 seins ewes ude aconearoG een 440 Bock, Cari E. & RicHarp IX. JOHNSON .......... 42 Boss, KENNETH) JAY: ot ceccits aricade eee 447 BRATCHER, TwitA & RopertT D. BurcH ........... 7 Burcu, Rosert D. see BRATCHER, TWILA & CARTER, ROBERT) MU 15 ois. /lere. ave euczsroers -ceneco here eee 59 CatTre, CRAWFORD NEILL ............-- 13, 198, 212 Cate, CRAWForRD N. & FRANZ ALFRED SCHILDER .. 382

CATES JEANAM IS cers ees ieee 5, 83, 192, 247 CERNOHORSKY, WALTER OLIVER ... 111, 275, 349, 353 Cut, Lois Wonc see: WINKLER, Linpsay R. &

Dance, S. PETER & WILLIAM K. EMERSON ......... 9] DuSHANE; HELEN) 253600). sc teen sso enone 87 DuSHane, HELEN & GALE G. SPHON ........... 233 EDWARDS) Ds GRAIG (as cides eter ererie eter ete 297 JOneT SON, WMATA I, 5 0050000000000000000 99, 379 see also Dance, S. PETER & EVANS) OHING Wilh ceee ter iiriarer 148, 174 FEepER, Howarp M. & REUBEN LASKER .......... 283 BYSHER( TSW: Suracdismiaxonsgeyeas torsenneniee toe eee e 446

GREENBERG, MicHAEL J. see JEGLA, THomas C, & (GOS, |VANERS 135 ob 00d00000000050b000000000000 203

Vol. 10; No. 4 THE VELIGER Page V EWADERTIE 0B ey Cin tive tie sivisetevece sift oseretsit cy sis areraaierslats 327 ReisH, Donan J. & JosEpH Ayers, Jr. ........ 384 EVARRYAELAROLD Walia raya eerste aishevaisieiers et cVeleseret a'sa je 133 ROSEWATER © GJOSEDHE i ioie sca neusiatle ace «o-cassoelsr 350 UETPEMAN SEUGENE USS sreinciniea cis « erietest sien esis cl 290 ScHILDER, Maria & FRANZ ALFRED SCHILDER ..... 103 HIERTIEIN, LEO G:, .....-5..-.. (205))5(294)))(295)) SCHIEDER SURANZPALFRED) see sciatic ee elec e 264 HIOUBRICK,, JOSEPH (Reo) 23.6 ieee cise oe ons oe ne 292 see also Cate, CRAwrorp NEILL &

Jecia, THomas C. & MicHaAEL J. GREENBERG 253, 314 see also ScHILDER, Maria &

JouNnson, RicHarp E. see Bock, Cart E & SMITH yD NGUIND REISS Vanve emis es caiaiens ovsiaisiave: sree 1, 176 IKSERN WAC ENIYRA)) or cejersts bisjere.o:0:e eres (90), (295), 389 SPHON, Gate G. see DuSHANE, HELEN & KQAPPENBAGH, MIGUEL .........0-000csecc00s- 274 Srivastava, P. D. & Y. N. SRIVASTAVA .....-.0000. 320 Lasker, ReuBEN see FEDER, Howarp M. & Srivastava, Y.N. see Srivastava, P D.s

MarsHALL, Netson_ see Moore, JoHNES K. & STOHLER, RuDOLF ...... (90), (205), (294), (296) NIPSO RE R DON Wey etic esches nna wiasiseldceie.oFiaiete so eens in Se UE orcs epoke eer eyey tae tesa emse cetera 4 (449), (450) VICTORIAN MMJAMES IETS /el05 ayale olorsis drei e aiisievetesieie es! « 58 SPAT MADCE SROBERTE RGM Nene eer rneeeicie rin 200 IMIEREDIRH A OTEVEN Eo io ayeicie ike oats) oisle oieleis ole ore ere 281 HEAVLOR NS MOWAG HT Tra Wott eieeverettlayavccais ereisrea terre eve eacis 152 NAT ANU TIAMAT WO)e arene nied ahemesecetorseavols eevee neal aos 342 PEERRY Se UD YAS eee EY. ee yeh rai iuacausidl hearst eo eaneeraeees 89 Moore, JoHNES K. & NELSON MARSHALL ........ 10 TurscH, BERNARD see VAN Mot, JEAN-JACQUES & INARGHTMEVWATBERY lalvereiecis cteiare oy ciesie) seseuer oltanguotstee ¢ 305 WALENTINES AMES SW) rinih. «niauetnn micros acm ae nr 293 INVBAKEIGEN, HJAMES (We 1 viccjn cis eise tela dies cesses as 55: Van Mot, JEAN-JACQUES & BERNARD TurRSCH .... 196 ORD MAVVIETIAN EJs oni alel ceca sie cles wa arene da eyes 286 WEAVERS CLIRTONGOTOKESM se criada tie ene: 442 ©) NaETAT CETe a Pe AUT ares cy aces a Siete close euekevemceuerieis 6 77 WINKLER, LinpsAy R. & Lois Wonc CuI ........ 188 BARANJAPE, MADHU J... 6. cece cece cee ete sees 322 WOLFSON WPAYSHENRY. 1afeeleceiieeonrielieieasis aise 292

Younc, Davwm K. ........

SU OS osOnC OSHC UONDe US 159

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Moll. THE

A Quarterly published by CALIFORNIA MALACOZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC.

Berkeley, California

VOLUME 10 JuLy 1, 1967 NuMBER I CONTENTS

Two New Species of British Turrids (Plate 1; 5 Text figures)

EDMUND RLIROMUEEL corm aey Wyn tle io Mgot., say AMncy. 5). o 7 GMy ego) ede Seater vee. oe COE The Radula of Zierliana woldemarti (KiENER, 1839) (3 Text figures)

JJSEINT IML, Ginga 2 ics > ho BO Bun nn area Mic au een a Re aera ee er 2 A New Terebrid Species with Check List of Terebridae from the Red Sea

(Mollusca : Gastropoda) (Plate 2)

A WAlAY BRATCHER IE ROBERTI BURGH) =.5 . sou sect) sc) cic: ees hecon men The Retention of Lamellibranch Larvae in the Niantic Estuary (1 Map)

JOHNESHIC MOORE & NELSONSMIARSHALL 5 4 iG. - =) sees) 10

The Cowries of the Ryukyu Islands (Plate 3; 2 Maps)

CRAWEORDONS CATE) 2oeammr en ee on Se heme pe akg ats alle, est ES The Role of Behavior in Determining the Intertidal Zonation of Littorina planaxis Puuiuiprl, 1847, and Littorina scutulata Goutp, 1849 (8 Text figures) CARE PE MBOCK & RICHARD ba JOHNSON 4500-0150 cy = lie evel ek ss ee, | 42

Preliminary Observations on the Feeding Behavior of Conus purpurascens BRODERIP, 1833 (Plate 4)

IPARUES \WOINSBAKICEN ji nkt-s eRe eich i) a a, Maier me Beene gy ee ase 5

Note on the Radula of Mitromica Brrry, 1958 (1 Text figure) (JAMESPEONMIGIEE AND: 7 40-) SMMC CCUG ete asst ea: eagle ole yiane Sy eS, Berea GO

The Shell Ornament of Hysteroconcha and Hecuba (Bivalvia): a Test Case for Inferential Functional Morphology (Plates 5 to 7; 2 Text figures)

ROBERT ANIC ARTER 2 0n ai. stl a ede acy Gane Seen UC Das. ar Mee a ueT le stan hO)

[Continued on Inside Front Cover]

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CONTENTS Continued

Mode of Feeding and Diet, and Synthesis of Studies on Marine Pelecypods from Tomales Bay, California

DON MAURER ioe 2k ee Re eg yeh PRO ers Css ey ee ea een a

The Behavioral Role and the Structure of the Aesthetes of Chitons (Plates 8, 9) PauL OMELICH A Quantitative Sampling of the Mollusks of Batangas Bay, Philippines (Plates 10, 11; 1 Map; 2 Text figures) JEAN MEICATE © 275), es Gos) Grate) cel canine ne cy ae

Epitonium (Asperiscala) billeeana (DUSHANE & BRATCHER, 1965) non Scalina billeeana DUSHANE & BRATCHER, 1965

ELEN DUSHANE? 03" ap as, Centres et el iaree gems NOTESU& NEWS igo ee ee io echt Sa ott un BOOKS, PERIODICALS & PAMPHLETS .............

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‘shown by the following examples:

ORDER, Suborder, DIVISION, Subdivision, SECTION,

SUPERFAMILY, FamILy, Subfamily, Genus, (Subgenus). New Taxa

Vol. 10; No. 1

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Two New Species of British Turrids

BY

EDMUND H. SMITH

Department of Zoology, University of Glasgow, and the Marine Station, Millport '

(Plate 1; 5 Text figures)

THE PRESENT CLASSIFICATION of the Turridae is based almost entirely on shell characters. The weakness of such a Classification, however, has been clearly demonstrated during a recent study of the turrids of the Clyde Sea Area, Scotland in which almost identical shells were found to “house” radically differing animals. Thus, while some spe- cimens of “Philbertia leufroy: booth (Smitu, 1839)” from the Clyde Sea Area possess the usual complement of radula, poison gland and salivary glands, others, almost indistinguishable conchologically, were found without any trace of these structures. A second, apparently unde- scribed, turrid from the same area was found to lack these structures. It is considered that these findings warrant the creation of a new genus and of two new species.

Cenodagreutes E. H. Smiru, gen. nov.

Type species: Cenodagreutes aethus spec. nov.

The shell characters are similar to those of Philbertia (see esp. THIELE, 1931, p. 370), and as in that genus, the operculum is absent. Internally, however, it can be distin- guished from Philbertia, and probably from all other genera of British turrids (E.H.Smirn, 1967), by the absence of the radula, poison gland, and salivary glands. Etymology: The generic name Cenodagrcutes is derived from the Greek xevodov7is, toothless, and aypevtns, the hunter, meaning the “toothless hunter”, alluding to the lack of radular teeth.

Cenodagreutes aethus E.. H. Situ, spec. nov. (Plate 1, Figures 1 and 2; Text figures | to 3)

Shell: The shell is small (7mm in length), fusiform, has a short spire and seven to eight prominently convex whorls.

' Present address: Pacific Marine Station, Dillon Beach, California 94929.

The nuclear whorls number three and are diagonally de- cussate. The postnuclear whorls are sculptured with very prominent axial ribs which are crossed by thin, well defined uniformly spaced spiral cords; on the penultimate whorl the axial ribs number 14, the spiral cords 6. The orna- mentation consists of very fine axial growth rugae and small pustules covering the depressions between the spiral cords. The suture is fine and there is no sutural shelf. The labial aperture is ovate and the siphonal canal is short and smooth. The sinus is shallow and occupies most of the shoulder. The parietal and columellar calluses are smooth and abruptly marked off from the surface orna- mentation. The outer lip is thin.

Color: The ground color of the shell is creamy white, the pustules are brilliant white and the spiral cords reddish- brown. Over some of the axial ribs, however, the brown coloration of the cords is absent.

General appearance: The foot is a translucent creamy color, flecked on the sides and near the opening of the rhynchodaeum with brilliant opaque white. The siphon is uniformly cream colored.

Internal anatomy: The polyembolic proboscis (SmirH, 1967) is much shorter than that of Philbertia leufroyi boothi (Text figure |). There are two projections (br) on the mid-line of the floor of the rhynchodaeum (rh). The two major introvert retractor muscles (rm) send small bundles of fibers into each of the two small projec- tions. The oral opening (00) is surrounded by a thin circular muscle layer which thickens posteriad around the antcrior ocsophagus (oc). The epithelium surrounding the oral region and passing posteriorly for a short distance is densely ciliated. Vhe glandular sheath (gs) which en- circles the oral opening is short with a few thin muscle strands leading from the fold of the sheath to the wall of the cephalic hacmococl. After the oesophagus passes through the nerve ring (nr) it enlarges; gland cells replace the densely ciliatecl epithelium found in the anterior

Figure 1

Cenodagreutes aethus

Idealized diagram depicting longitudinal section through the rhynchodaeum.

br mid-ventral bumps of the rhynchodaeum

ct circumoesophageal tensors gs glandular sheath lr lip of the rhynchodaeum nr nerve ring oe oesophagus 00 opening of oesophagus th rhynchodaeum rm major retractor muscles of the rhynchodaeum

rs _rhynchostome sr sphincter of the rhynchostome

region. There are no salivary glands, radular sac, or poison gland. The intestine is covered by a thin muscular layer and lined by ciliated cells. There is no anal gland.

Present in the male reproductive system (Text figure 2) is a large vesicula seminalis (vs) and a connective tissue strand (a remnant of the gonopericardial duct, gd) run- ning from the vas deferens (vd) to the pericardial wall (pc). An opening (mo) connects the vas deferens to the mantle cavity and there is a convoluted prostate gland (pg) which opens into a short penis (p).

In the female system (Text figure 3) the gonadial ovi- duct (go) is composed of columnar gland cells and sur- rounded by a thick muscular layer. The renal oviduct (ro) is short, narrow, and enters the albumen gland (al) ventrally. There is no gonopericardial duct. The albumen gland is ciliated throughout with no subepithelial glands. The epithelium of the albumen gland becomes continuous with the posterior part of the capsule gland (cg). There

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is no pallial oviduct. A short, constricted muscular duct joins the anterodorsal part of the albumen gland with the ingesting gland (ig) and functions as a receptaculum seminis. The capsule gland has no ventral channel and opens into a small bursa copulatrix (bc). This bursa is muscular with a narrow lumen which opens directly into the capsule gland. The epithelium lining the capsule gland and extending a short way into the bursa is composed of gland cells.

Type specimens: The holotype was collected off Farland Point, Isle of Cumbrae, Firth of Clyde, Scotland (Lat.

T P PA VS Cc HR P PD D GD MO PG Figure 2

Cenodagreutes aethus

Diagramatic reconstruction from sections, of the male reproductive

system. gd gonopericardial duct hr heart mo opening from vas deferens to mantle Pp penis pa opening of penis pc pericardial wall pg prostate gland pd duct from prostate gland t testis

vd_ vas deferens vs vesicula seminalis

O GO IG CG AL BC RO N00) GT Figure 3

Cenodagreutes aethus

Diagramatic reconstruction from sections, of the female reproductive

system. al albumen gland be bursa copulatrix cg capsule gland go gonadial oviduct gt genital opening id duct to ingesting gland ig ingesting gland

renal oviduct

la lumen of the albumen gland o ovary ro

Explanation of Plate 1

Figure 1: Cenodagreutes aethus, a view of the shell aperture. Figure 2: Cenodagreutes aethus, a view of the labial sinus.

Figure 3: Cenodagreutes coccyginus, a view of the shell aperture. Figure 4: Cenodagreutes coccyginus, a view of the labial sinus.

[E. H. Smiru] Plate 1

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55° 44’ 20” N, Long. 5730” W) on a bottom of stones and mud in 20m. The holotype has been serially sectioned and these sections, along with the broken shell, are depos- ited at the California Academy of Sciences, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Type number 320. It consists of 4 microscope slides, CAS numbers 338 - 341. A paratype, consisting of an unbroken shell is also deposited at the same institution, Type number 321.

Etymology: The specific name aethus is derived from the the Greek a:Owv, and refers to the red color.

Cenodagreutes coccyginus E. H. Smitu, spec. nov.

(Plate 1, Figures 3 and 4; Text figures 4 and 5)

Shell: The shell is small (54mm in length), fusiform, and has a short spire with seven whorls which are somewhat less convex than in Cenodagreutes aethus. The nuclear whorls number three, and are diagonally decussate. The postnuclear whorls are sculptured with very prominent axial ribs which are crossed by thin, well defined and uniformly spaced spiral cords; on the penultimate whorl the axial ribs number 14, the spiral cords 6. The orna- mentation consists of very fine axial growth rugae and fine granules, in contrast to the pustules of C. aethus, which cover the depressions between the axial ribs and spiral cords. The suture is fine and there is no sutural shelf. The labial aperture is ovate and the siphonal canal short and

SR RS

RM SM CT

Figure 4

Cenodagreutes coccyginus

Idealized diagram depicting longitudinal section through the thynchodaeum.

ct circumoesophageal tensors gs glandular sheath

Ir lip of the rhynchodaeum nr nerve ring oe oesophagus

00 opening of the oesophagus th rhynchodaeum

rm major retractor muscles of the rhynchodaeum

rs_rhynchostome sm sheath muscles sr sphincter of the rhynchostome

smooth. The labial sinus is distinct when compared to C. aethus and occupies most of the shoulder. The parietal and columellar calluses are smooth and abruptly marked off from the surface ornamentation. The outer lip is thicker than in C. aethus.

Color: The ground color of the shell is creamy white with alternating dark reddish-brown spiral lines which are broken occasionally by opaque white or yellowish zones.

General appearance: The foot is translucent creamy white, sometimes tinged with purple and covered with opaque white spots on the sides. The siphon is uniformly white. Internal anatomy: As in Cenodagreutes aethus a polyem- bolic proboscis is present (Text figure 4). The projections on the floor of the rhynchodaeum (rh) are absent and the oral opening (00) is surrounded by a very thick muscle layer. In contrast to C. aethus the epithelium sur- rounding the oral region and passing posteriorly for a short distance is cuticular. The glandular sheath (gs) which encircles the oral opening is long with well devel- oped muscle strands (ms) leading from the fold of the sheath to the wall of the cephalic haemocoel. The oeso- phagus extends into the oral sheath for some distance forming “lips”. After the oesophagus passes through the nerve ring (nr), it enlarges, as in C. aethus, with gland

© €O renee CG = RO PO R | 10 Figure 5

Cenodagreutes coccyginus

Diagramatic reconstruction from sections, of the female reproductive system.

al albumen gland b_ distal bulb of the receptaculum seminis be bursa copulatrix cg capsule gland go gonadial oviduct gt genital opening Oo ovary po pallial oviduct r receptaculum seminis ro renal oviduct ve ventral channel

cells replacing the cuticular epithelium of the more ante- rior region. There are no salivary glands, radular sac, or poison gland. The intestine is ciliated and surrounded by a thick muscular layer. There is a long, thin anal gland which follows the intestine for some distance, opening into its lumen near the anus.

Only female specimens of this very rare turrid have been found. The female system (Text figure 5) is similar to that of Cenodagreutes acthus with the following ex- ceptions. There is a pallial oviduct (po) between the

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Vol. 10; No. 1

albumen gland (al) and capsule gland (cg). No sperm were found in the small distal bulb (b) of the receptacu- lum seminis nor was there any evidence of sperm ingestion. The capsule gland has a ventral channel (vc). The bursa copulatrix (bc) is much larger than that of C. aethus with the bulb forming the distal end of the bursa and lying at the anterior end of the capsule gland. This enlargement forms a sperm filled sac. it is not lined by glandular epithelium but by one composed of densely ciliated cells.

Type specimens: The holotype was collected off Tan Buoy between Great Cumbrae and Little Cumbrae Islands, Firth of Clyde, Scotland (Lat. 55° 44’ 20” N, Long. 57’30” W) on a sandy shell bottom in 17 m. The holotype has been serially sectioned and these sections, along with the broken shell, are deposited at the California Academy of Sciences, Department of Invertebrate Zool- ogy, Type number 322. It consists of 5 microscope slides, CAS numbers 342 - 346. A paratype, consisting of an un- broken shell is also deposited at the same institution, Type number 323.

Etymology: The specific name coccyginus is derived from